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3D game, Hospital, Intervention, Medication administration, Medication error, Safety, Skills



  1. Harkanen, Marja PhD
  2. Luokkamaki, Sanna MSc
  3. Saano, Susanna PhD
  4. Saastamoinen, Tiia MSc
  5. Vehvilainen-Julkunen, Katri PhD


The aim of this study was to describe identified risk areas related to the medication administration process in acute care in order to develop a three-dimensional-game intervention. A secondary analysis was conducted using (1) observed medication administrations (n = 1058) and identified medication errors in 2012 (n = 235), (2) a systematic review including a meta-analysis of previous medication administration educational interventions (n = 14) from 2000 to 2015, (3) incident reports of medication administration errors (n = 1012) from 2013 to 2014, and (4) focus group interviews with RNs' (n = 20) views in 2015. A qualitative content analysis was used to identify risk areas, and the data were organized according to the following main themes: (1) factors related to patients (patient identification, patients' characteristics or symptoms, and patients' allergies and interactions); (2) factors related to medications (medication information, changes in medications, generic substitutes, new drugs, look-alike/sound-alike drugs, demanding drug treatments, medication preparation, and administration techniques); (3) factors related to staffing (workload, skills, interruptions and distractions, division of work, responsibility, attitudes, and guidelines); and (4) factors related to communication (flow of information, communication with the patients, and marking of medication information). Identified risk areas could be used to develop interventions with the aim of increasing the safety of medication administration and nurses' skills.