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Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), Clinical dashboard, Fall risk, Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs), Participatory design



  1. Reeder, Blaine PhD
  2. Makic, Mary Beth Flynn PhD, RN
  3. Morrow, Cynthia PhD
  4. Ouellet, Judith PhD
  5. Sutcliffe, Britney BSN
  6. Rodrick, David PhD
  7. Gritz, Mark PhD
  8. Wald, Heidi MD, MPH


Hospital-acquired conditions such as catheter-associated urinary tract infection, stage 3 or 4 hospital-acquired pressure injury, and falls with injury are common, costly, and largely preventable. This study used participatory design methods to design and evaluate low-fidelity prototypes of clinical dashboards to inform high-fidelity prototype designs to visualize integrated risks based on patient profiles. Five low-fidelity prototypes were developed through literature review and by engaging nurses, nurse managers, and providers as participants (N = 23) from two hospitals in different healthcare systems using focus groups and interviews. Five themes were identified from participatory design sessions: Need for Integrated Hospital-Acquired Condition Risk Tool, Information Needs, Sources of Information, Trustworthiness of Information, and Performance Tracking Perspectives. Participants preferred visual displays that represented patient comparative risks for hospital-acquired conditions using the familiar design metaphor of a gauge and green, yellow, and red "traffic light" colors scheme. Findings from this study were used to design a high-fidelity prototype to be tested in the next phase of the project. Visual displays of hospital-acquired conditions that are familiar in display and simplify complex information such as the green, yellow, and red dashboard are needed to assist clinicians in fast-paced clinical environments and be designed to prevent alert fatigue.