Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


aged, cardiovascular diseases, health status disparities, income, Korea



  1. Lee, Chiyoung PhD, RN
  2. Yang, Qing PhD
  3. Im, Eun-Ok PhD, MPH, RN, CNS, FAAN
  4. McConnell, Eleanor Schildwachter PhD, RN
  5. Jung, Sin-Ho PhD
  6. Kim, Hyeoneui PhD, MPH, RN, FAAN


Background: Understanding the factors underlying health disparities is vital to developing strategies to improve health equity in old age. Such efforts should be encouraged in Korea.


Objective: This study explored how material, behavioral, psychological, and social-relational factors contribute to income-related disparities in cardiovascular risk among Korean adults 65 years and older.


Methods: This was a secondary analysis of Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2013-2017), targeting 7347 older adults (>=65 years). Socioeconomic position, defined as income, was the primary indicator. The outcome was binary for predicted cardiovascular risk (<90 vs >=90 percentile). Disparities were measured using relative index of inequality (RII). The contributions of material, behavioral, psychological, and social-relational factors were estimated by calculating percentage reduction in RII when adjusted for these factors.


Results: Among men aged 65 to 74 years and women 75 years or older, the largest reductions in RII were achieved after adjusting for social-relational factors. Among men 75 years or older and women aged 65 to 74 years, adjusting for material factors resulted in the largest reductions in RII. Adjustments for behavioral factors also reduced RII for both genders aged 65 to 74 years.


Conclusions: Improving the social, material, and behavioral circumstances of lower-income older adults may help address income-related disparities in cardiovascular risk in old age.