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  1. Benneyan, James C. PhD
  2. White, Tiantian MD
  3. Nehls, Nicole BS
  4. Yap, Tze Sheng BS
  5. Aronson, Mark MD
  6. Sternberg, Scot MS
  7. Anderson, Tim MD
  8. Goyal, Kashika MD
  9. Lindenberg, Julia MD
  10. Kim, Hans MD, MPH
  11. Cohen, Marc MD
  12. Phillips, Russell S. MD
  13. Schiff, Gordon D. MD


COVID-19 necessitated significant care redesign, including new ambulatory workflows to handle surge volumes, protect patients and staff, and ensure timely reliable care. Opportunities also exist to harvest lessons from workflow innovations to benefit routine care. We describe a dedicated COVID-19 ambulatory unit for closing testing and follow-up loops characterized by standardized workflows and electronic communication, documentation, and order placement. More than 85% of follow-ups were completed within 24 hours, with no observed staff, nor patient infections associated with unit operations. Identified issues include role confusion, staffing and gatekeeping bottlenecks, and patient reluctance to visit in person or discuss concerns with phone screeners.