Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


envelopment, immersion, microclimate, pressure injury, shear, support surface, standards



  1. Thurman, Kristen PT, MPT, CWS
  2. Deppisch, Michelle PT, CWS, FACCWS
  3. Morello, Susan S. BSN, RN, CWOCN
  4. Moseley, Rachel MS, BSN, RN, CWON, APHN
  5. Slayton, Stephanie PT, DPT, CWS, CLT-LANA
  6. Sylvia, Cynthia DNurs, MSc, MA, RN, CWCN
  7. Todd, Jackie MBA, BS, BSN, RN, CWCN


ABSTRACT: Selecting the appropriate support surface for patients continues to challenge clinicians and facilities. The Support Surface Standards Committee has developed and published test methods that allow for informed comparisons among support surface characteristics. The first published standards address the performance characteristics of immersion/envelopment, shear/friction, and microclimate management. This article describes the full body support surface standards development and provides guidance on the use of the outcomes from those standard tests for clinicians and facilities to make more informed choices for patients and patient populations.