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anthrax, bioterrorism, botulism, Ebola, moulage, simulators, smallpox, standardized patients



  1. Atlas, Ronald M. PhD
  2. Clover, Richard D. MD
  3. Carrico, Ruth PhD
  4. Wesley, Gina PhD
  5. Thompson, Michelle
  6. McKinney, W. Paul MD


The UofL Center for the Deterrence of Biowarfare and Bioterrorism's (CDBB's) training involving standardized patients, who can make convincingly accurate representations of clinical signs and symptoms, and patient simulators has proven to be an effective means of enhancing bioterrorism preparedness. In addition to providing ready access to formative measures of preparedness, both of these teaching and learning tools also offer the option of summative evaluation of skills and knowledge acquired during training sessions. The use of moulage allows for very realistic representations of cutaneous anthrax and smallpox as well as other conditions such as recluse spider bites and chickenpox with which these biothreat infections can be confused. Exercises and drills expose deficiencies and permit essential reinforcement of skills developed in training. Unannounced exercises are especially useful in assessing public health preparedness.