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  1. Punches, Brittany E. PhD, RN, CEN, FAEN
  2. Ali, Abeer Alhaj PhD, RN
  3. Brown, Jennifer L. PhD
  4. Freiermuth, Caroline E. MD, MS
  5. Clark, Angela K. PhD, RN, CNE, FAAN
  6. Lyons, Michael S. MD, MPH


Efforts to minimize the impact of prescribed opioids on future adverse outcomes are reliant on emergency care providers' ability to screen and detect opioid use disorder (OUD). Many prescriptions are initiated in the emergency department (ED) for acute pain; thus, validated measures are especially needed. Our systematic review describes the available opioid-related screening measures identified through search of the available literature. Measures were categorized by intent and applied clinical setting. We found 44 articles, identifying 15 screening measures. Of these, nine were developed to screen for current opioid misuse and five to screen for risk of future opioid misuse. None were created for use outside of a chronic pain setting. Many measures were applied differently from intended purpose. Although several measures are available, screening for adverse opioid outcomes in the ED is hampered by lack of validated instruments. Development of clarified conceptual models and ED-specific research is necessary to limit OUD.