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  1. Du Pen, Anna ARNP, MN


Epidural and intrathecal catheters have increasingly become a part of acute and chronic pain management over the past 25 years. Externalized systems include temporary, permanent exteriorized, and permanent port systems for use over weeks to months of expected therapy. Implanted, completely internalized systems are available for conditions expected to require many months or years of therapy. Expert care includes routine management as well as advanced troubleshooting. Prevention of infection is a key priority for nurses managing these devices.