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  1. Ercelik, Zubeyde Ezgi RN
  2. Yilmaz, Diler PhD, RN


Examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a very painful procedure. Therefore, pain management is essential given the possibility of sensory and behavioral problems in newborns, who are constantly exposed to painful stimuli. In this light, the use of nonpharmacological methods alone or in combination with pharmacological methods is recommended for pain control. This systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of nonpharmacological treatments on pain during ROP examination. Randomized controlled trials published in English between 2011 and 2021 and available in the electronic databases of Medline, Web of Science, Nursing & Allied Health, and PubMed were reviewed. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.4. Six randomized controlled studies were included. Glucose (mean difference [MD]: -1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.34 to 0.94, P < .0001) and sucrose (MD: -2.50, 95% CI: -3.20 to -1.79, P < .0001) solutions were effective in reducing pain. However, breast milk did not reduce the Premature Infant Pain Profile score (MD: -2.50, 95% CI: -6.10 to 1.10, P > .05). The application of sucrose and glucose solutions for pain management during ROP examination can be effective and safe.