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cardiovascular disease prevention, face validity, intervention, Life's Simple 7



  1. Jones, Holly J. PhD, RN, CFNP
  2. Kovacic, Melinda Butsch PhD, MPH
  3. Bakas, Tamilyn PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN


Background and Objective: Content validation is an integral part of intervention development and should be established before initiation of trials. In collaboration with a community research advisory board, the objective of this study was to analyze expert ratings and qualitative feedback for the Midlife Black Women's Stress-Reduction Wellness (B-SWELL) intervention materials.


Methods: The B-SWELL intervention is a culturally tailored 8-week intervention designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk in midlife Black women by leveraging stress reduction and promoting the adoption of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 healthy lifestyle behaviors. Using a mixed methods approach, 12 experts consisting of midlife Black women (n = 6), researchers (n = 3), and integrative health specialists (n = 3) rated the B-SWELL materials for content accuracy, topic relevance, stress relevance, cultural appropriateness, feasibility, usefulness, ease of use, and appeal using a 5-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree, to 5, strongly agree). Qualitative narrative data were integrated with the ratings.


Results: Combined expert ratings for the B-SWELL materials were high (range, 4.43-4.66). Group ratings differed, with midlife Black women having the highest mean ratings for both the individual B-SWELL modules and the overall binder (4.71 and 4.97, respectively), followed by researchers (4.56 and 4.73, respectively) and integrative health specialists (4.11 and 4.40, respectively). Qualitative data provided insight into deficiencies, supporting refinements of the B-SWELL materials.


Conclusions: The B-SWELL materials exhibited strong evidence of content and face validity. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to establish content validity before implementation of culturally appropriate interventions aimed at high-risk populations.