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Disaster, Evacuation, Game-based learning, Nursing student, Serious game, Virtual reality



  1. Hu, Hai MD
  2. Lai, Xiaoqin PhD, RN
  3. Li, Hao DPT
  4. Nyland, John DPT, EdD


The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a virtual reality mobile game-based application for teaching disaster evacuation management education to nursing students. A pre-test, post-test, and final-test study design was used to compare traditional lecture group and game group instructional knowledge delivery effectiveness and instructional mode satisfaction. The statistical comparison of pre-test and post-test knowledge and decision-making scores did not reveal significant group differences for short-term improvement (P >= .05); however, final test scores revealed that the virtual reality mobile game-based application group had significantly higher knowledge and decision-making retention scores compared with the traditional lecture group (P = .000). The game group also had significantly higher instructional mode satisfaction scores for course interest and cooperation with others (P < .05). The virtual reality mobile game-based application was more effective for teaching nursing students about disaster evacuation management educational training than lecture instruction. The greater satisfaction expressed by nursing students when using this instructional mode suggests that it may better facilitate self-initiated lifelong disaster evacuation learning behaviors.