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cognition, heart failure, interoception, medication adherence, walk test



  1. Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena MD, PhD
  2. Walaska, Kristen BS
  3. Trivedi, Dyuti MS
  4. Dunsiger, Shira PhD
  5. Breault, Christopher BS
  6. Levine, Daniel MD
  7. Wu, Jia-Rong PhD
  8. Cohen, Ronald PhD


Background: Mindfulness training (MT) may promote medication adherence in outpatients with heart failure.


Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the feasibility and acceptability of MT (primary outcomes) and explore effects on medication adherence, functional capacity, cognitive function, depression, and mindfulness skills (secondary outcomes).


Methods: In this pre/post-design study, participants received a 30-minute phone-delivered MT session weekly for 8 weeks.


Results: We enrolled 33 outpatients (32% women; 69.7 White; mean age, 60.3 years). Retention was 100%, and session attendance was 91%. Overall, participants (97%) rated MT as enjoyable. Objectively assessed (P < .05) adherence decreased post intervention, whereas improvements were noted in functional capacity (P = .05), mindfulness (P < .05), and cognitive function (reaching significance for Flanker scores).


Conclusions: Phone-delivered MT was feasible and acceptable. Whereas no improvements were noted in medication adherence and depression, cognitive function, functional capacity, and mindfulness levels increased post intervention, suggesting MT may have beneficial effects in outpatients with heart failure.