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  1. Wolf, Gail A. DNS, RN, FAAN
  2. Bradle, Judy BA
  3. Greenhouse, Pamela MBA


Among the numerous challenges facing healthcare leaders is the paucity of well-prepared, effective managers. Cuts in recent years have reduced "bench strength," and the demands of managing in a complex industry are significant. The authors describe a 3-level leadership development program created at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center to meet this challenge. Leadership gaps, content for each level, and outcomes are discussed.