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cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes



  1. Borgman, Marilyn RN, BSN
  2. McErlean, Ellen MSN, RN, FAHA


The metabolic syndrome has been referred to as a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, including abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, insulin resistance, proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. The metabolic syndrome has become one of the leading clinical issues discussed by physicians and the media, leading to increased public awareness to this potentially catastrophic multiplex risk factor for cardiovascular disease. With increasing prevalence in the United States, the metabolic syndrome has been equated to cigarette smoking as a contributing factor to premature cardiovascular heart disease and one of the underlying causes of type 2 diabetes. The identification and modification of the root causes, overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, and the closely associated condition, insulin resistance, needs to be one of the initial strategies that are addressed by the clinician.