biphosphonates, bone metastasis, breast cancer, pain, radiopharmaceuticals, radiotherapy



  1. Rosenfield, Rachael L. MSN, APN-BC, AOCNP
  2. Stahl, Denise MSN, BC-PCM


Bone pain continues to be a commonly experienced and devastating consequence of metastatic spread of breast cancer; thus, it is imperative that therapies aimed at the palliation of pain should be understood and fully supported by nurses caring for these patients. Both hospice and palliative care nurses have expertise and a vested interest in alleviating pain. The aims of this review article are to outline well-established pain management strategies used to control metastatic bone pain and to incorporate newer multidisciplinary methods and modalities, including nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, opioids, biphosphonates, local radiation therapy, systemic radiopharmaceuticals, and surgery.