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depression, leisure, physical symptoms, social support, subjective health status



  1. Loucks-Atkinson, Angela PhD
  2. Kleiber, Douglas A. PhD
  3. Williamson, Gail M. PhD


Three waves of data (at 1-year intervals) assessed the ability of 2 types of activity restriction (expressive and instrumental) to predict indicators of well-being (social support, depression, physical symptoms, and subjective health status) among caregivers (N = 310, Mage = 62.8 years, 77.1% female at Time 1). Factor analysis of the Activity Restriction Scale revealed that restricted activities could be separated into those that emphasize expressive, intrinsically motivated activities and those that are instrumental to the required tasks of everyday life. Instrumental activity restriction at Time 1 predicted lower levels of social support. Restriction in both activity domains at Time 1 predicted increased depression at Times 2 and 3. Finally, both expressive and instrumental activity restriction at Time 1 were predictive of increased physical symptoms and decreased health status. Implications for further research and practice derived from domain differentiation are discussed.