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knowledge development, Newman theory, nursing science, nursing theory, participatory research, participatory worldview, unitary-transformative paradigm



  1. Cowling, W. Richard III, PhD, RN, APRN-BC


This article responds to the calls by Margaret Newman for clarifying and expanding the nature of nursing knowledge. The unitary worldview proposed by Newman and the participatory worldview of action research are explicated, highlighting their respective major elements. A synthesis of unitary and participatory worldviews, grounded in a union of the elements of each, is proposed as a vision for the development of nursing knowledge. The unitary, participatory vision described offers the potential for inclusiveness and transcendence of previous perspectives of nursing knowledge.