1. Heaman, Maureen

Article Content

Noel-Weiss, J., Rupp, A., Cragg, B., Bassett, V., & Woodend, A. K. (2006). Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 35, 616-624.


Does a prenatal breastfeeding workshop increase duration of breastfeeding? These investigators conducted a randomized, controlled trial in Ontario, Canada to determine that answer and to find out if it increased the confidence a woman has in her ability to breastfeed. The workshop lasted 2.5 hr and was based on adult learning principles and Bandura's theory of self-efficacy (Noel-Weiss, Bassett, & Cragg, 2006). Ninety-two nulliparous women participated and completed the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Short Form (BSES-SF) at 4 to 8 weeks postpartum (Dennis, 2003). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to any background variables, birth characteristics, or baseline prenatal BSES-SF scores. Results were analyzed by intent to treat and actual workshop attendance. Women in the intervention group had significantly higher self-efficacy scores at 4 weeks postpartum and a higher mean number of days of breastfeeding at 8 weeks, and they were more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding at 8 weeks compared to the control group, when analyzed according to workshop attendance. Results should be viewed with caution because the sample size was too small for some of the statistical analyses to have enough power to detect small effects. Caution also should be used in generalizing the results because most participants were well educated, had a family income in excess of $70,000, and had a supportive partner. This study should be replicated using larger sample sizes and more diverse socioeconomic and cultural groups. The results suggest that nurses could consider implementing this type of prenatal breastfeeding workshop, because it may result in higher levels of confidence in ability to breastfeed and a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding.


Maureen Heaman




Dennis, C.-L. (2003). The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Psychometric assessment of the short form. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 32, 734-744. [Context Link]


Noel-Weiss, J. A., Bassett, V., & Cragg, B. (2006). Developing a prenatal breastfeeding workshop to support maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 35, 349-357. [Context Link]