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Advanced Trauma Life Support, Hemorrhagic shock, Resuscitative fluids



  1. Spaniol, Joseph R.
  2. Knight, Amanda R. BA
  3. Zebley, Jessica L. MS, RN
  4. Anderson, Dawn MS, RN
  5. Pierce, Janet D. DSN, ARNP, CCRN


Hemorrhagic shock is a severe life-threatening emergency affecting all organ systems of the body by depriving tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients by decreasing cardiac output. This article is a short review of the different types of shock, followed by information specifically referring to hemorrhagic shock. The American College of Surgeons categorized shock into 4 classes: (1) distributive; (2) obstructive; (3) cardiogenic; and (4) hemorrhagic. Similarly, the classes of hemorrhagic shock are grouped by signs and symptoms, amount of blood loss, and the type of fluid replacement. This updated review is helpful to trauma nurses in understanding the various clinical aspects of shock and the current recommendations for fluid resuscitation therapy following hemorrhagic shock.