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hospital pharmacy, pharmacy management, physical environment, servicescapes, work outcomes



  1. Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju
  2. Leu, Wen-Jye
  3. Breen, Gerald-Mark
  4. Lin, Wen-Hung


Background: In health care, architects, interior designers, engineers, and health care administrators need to pay attention to the construction and design of health care facilities. Research is needed to better understand how health professionals and employees perceive their work environment to improve the physical environment in which they work.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of the physical environment of hospital pharmacies on hospital pharmacists' work outcomes.


Methodology: This cross-sectional mailed survey study of individual hospital pharmacists used a structured questionnaire developed to cover perceptions of the ambient conditions and the space/function(s) of pharmacists' work environments. It included aspects such as dispensing areas, pharmaceuticals areas, storage areas, and administrative offices. Work outcomes were job satisfaction, intentions to leave or reduce job working hours, and job-related stress. Hospital pharmacists in Taiwan (n = 182) returned the mailed surveys. Structural equation modeling was performed to validate the construct of the physical environment of a hospital pharmacy and the causal model for testing the effect of the physical environment on pharmacists' work outcomes.


Findings: For hospital pharmacy workplaces, more favorable perceptions of the workplace's physical environment were positively associated with overall job satisfaction, but such perceptions were also negatively related to intentions to quit employment or to reduce working hours. However, the effect of the physical environment on job stress within the workplace was not supported.


Practice Implications: The designs of physical environments deserve attention to create more appropriate and healthier environments for hospital pharmacies. Further research should be devoted to trace more psychological responses to the physical environment from a longitudinal perspective.