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  1. Smyth, Carole A. MSN, ANP-GNP, APRN, BC


Inadequate sleep-sleep of poor quality or insufficient duration or both-has been linked to health problems ranging from cognitive impairment to compromised immunity. Insomnia occurs more frequently after age 70, and more than half of adults ages 65 and older report at least one chronic sleep complaint. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index is easily used to assess the quality and patterns of sleep in older adults. It consists of 18 questions covering seven areas in which sleep problems occur and can be completed in about 10 minutes. For a free online video demonstrating the use of this index, go to