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decision making, emancipated, flexible environment, personal knowledge, social norms



  1. Wittmann-Price, Ruth A. DNSc, CNS, RN, CNE
  2. Bhattacharya, Anand MHS


This study explored the 5 subconcepts (empowerment, flexible environment, personal knowledge, reflection, and social norms) of the Wittmann-Price Theory of Emancipated Decision Making (EDM) in women's healthcare, a theoretical model. Pain management for labor was the clinical exemplar. The correlation of EDM and satisfaction with the decision (SWD) was measured, and flexible environment was the subscale with the highest mean score. There was a significant relationship between EDM and SWD (r = 0.70, P < .001). Personal knowledge and flexible environment were the best predictors of satisfaction. This study advances the theory of EDM for the nursing care of women.