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  1. Hanna, Diane
  2. Jacob, Sharon
  3. Bhatia, Ashish


Stingray envenomations are a common occurrence in the coastal regions of the United States and around the globe. Although the mechanism of action of the toxin is not known, the most common complaint is intense pain. Most of these injuries are minor and manageable. Systemic side effects can be seen, including nausea, vomiting, salivation, dyspnea, cardiac dysrhythmias, syncope, hypotension, seizures, fasciculations, and, rarely, death. Unfortunately, in-depth analyses of stingray injuries have not been documented or captured. Furthermore, there are no current treatment guidelines, and adequate research is lacking (R. F. Clark, R. H. Girard, D. Rao, B. T. Ly, & D. P. Davis, 2007).