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Cancer, Chemotherapy, Combined CT/radiation therapy, Complementary medicine, Self-care, Symptom monitoring by checklist, TRSC (Philippine version)



  1. Williams, Phoebe D. PhD, RN, FAAN
  2. Balabagno, Araceli O. PhD, RN
  3. Manahan, Lydia MN, RN
  4. Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat PhD, RN
  5. Ranallo, Lori MSN, RN, ARNP-BC
  6. Laurente, Cecilia M. PhD, RN
  7. Cajucom, Loyda BSN, RN
  8. Guela, Daisy MSN, RN
  9. Kimbrough, Mercedita BSN, RN
  10. Williams, Arthur R. PhD, MA(Econ), MPA


The purpose of this study was to assess patient-reported symptoms and self-care methods used during cancer treatments, using checklists. A descriptive study was performed at the cancer institute of a national medical center in Manila on 100 patients undergoing combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, n = 37, or chemotherapy alone, n = 63. Instruments used were (a) 25-item patient-reported Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC), (b) Self-care Methods (with the 25 TRSC items) tool, (c) Karnofsky Scale, (d) Demographic form, and (e) Health form. The TRSC (Philippine version) Cronbach [alpha] = .83. The TRSC scores inversely, significantly correlated with nurse-rated Karnofsky measure of functional status (r = -0.45; P < .001)-all evidences of internal consistency reliability, construct, and concurrent validity; similar findings were found in Midwestern United States and 2 other Asian settings. Compared with those receiving chemotherapy alone, patients who had combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy reported more symptoms with greater severity on several TRSC subscales. Self-care methods most used were in 2 categories: (a) diet/nutrition/lifestyle change (eg, modify food/eating habits; eat vegetables and fruits (papaya); use nutritional supplements; have naps, rest, sleep) to manage eating, oropharynx, nausea, and fatigue subscale symptoms; and (b) mind/body control (eg, prayer, praying the rosary, music) to relieve fatigue subscale, other symptoms. The TRSC (Philippine version) and Self-care Methods assess patient-reported symptoms and patients' self-care use. Oncology symptom management is enhanced by a valid clinical assessment tool.