emergency department, ICH, in-hospital mortality, stroke



  1. Davis, Nicolle W.
  2. Sheehan, Tiffany O.
  3. Guo, Yi
  4. Kelly, Debra Lynch
  5. Horgas, Ann L.
  6. Yoon, Saunjoo L.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a medical emergency that requires rapid identification and focused assessment early to ensure the best possible outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the associations between system and patient factors and emergency department (ED) length of stay and in-hospital mortality in patients given a diagnosis of ICH. METHODS: A sample of 3108 ICH patients was selected from a statewide administrative database for cross-sectional retrospective analysis. System characteristic (hospital stroke certification), patient characteristics (age, sex, and race), and covariate conditions (stroke severity and comorbidities) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and hierarchical logistic regression models to address the study questions. RESULTS: The mean ED length of stay is 2.9 +/- 3 hours (range, 0-42 hours) before admission to an inpatient unit. Inpatient mortality is 14.9%. Stroke center certification (P < .000) and stroke severity (P <= .000) are significant predictors of ED length of stay, whereas age (P < .000), stroke severity (P < .000), comorbidities (P = .047), and ED length of stay (P = .04) are significant predictors of in-hospital mortality. Most notably, an ED length of stay of 3 hours or longer has a 37% increase in the odds of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Our findings support age, stroke severity, and ED length of stay as predictors of in-hospital mortality for ICH patients. The importance of timely admission to an inpatient unit is emphasized. Optimal systems of care and expedited inpatient admission are vital to reduce morbidity and mortality for ICH stroke patients.