1. Section Editor(s): Pfeifer, Gail M. MA, RN

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An important step in HIV prevention. The results of a study by the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, presented at the XVIII International AIDS Conference in Vienna, Austria, on July 18-23, showed that application of 1% tenofovir vaginal gel up to 12 hours before and soon after sex was 39% effective in reducing a woman's risk of becoming infected with HIV. The trial included 889 high-risk women in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (For more, see


Updated guidelines published. The International AIDS Society-USA guidelines on antiretroviral treatment in adults with HIV infection have been updated and were published in the July 21 issue of JAMA (


HIV and injection drug use. At the conclusion of the XVIII International AIDS Conference, signers of the Vienna Declaration called for "more rational and scientifically sound drug policies" to prevent HIV in injection-drug users. The Lancet has launched a series of seven papers that will explore HIV risk, unmet needs, and recommended prevention strategies in this population.