1. Neuls, Patrick D. PT, DPT
  2. Clark, Tammie L. PT, DPT
  3. Van Heuklon, Nicole C. PT, DPT
  4. Proctor, Joy E. PT
  5. Kilker, Barbra J. PT, DPT
  6. Bieber, Mallory E. PT
  7. Donlan, Alice V. PT, DPT, MBA
  8. Carr-Jules, Suchitha A. PT, DPT
  9. Neidel, William H. PT, DPT
  10. Newton, Roberta A. PT, PhD


Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to complete a comprehensive search and review of the literature to determine the ability of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) to predict falls in the elderly with and without pathology. Specifically, the cutoff score that is most predictive of falls in the older adults and the sensitivity and specificity of the BBS in predicting falls.


Methods: A search of English-language-based literature with relevant search terms using the OVID, CINAHL, PubMed, and MEDLINE search engines from 1985 to March 2009.


Results: Nine studies warranted inclusion in this systematic review after evaluation for article objectives, inclusion criteria, and scoring 5 or more out of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Five studies addressed the elderly population ( = 65 years) without pathology. The remaining 4 studies addressed elderly participants with neurological disorders. All 9 studies reported sensitivity and specificity of the BBS in predicting falls. Sensitivity and specificity results varied greatly depending on the cutoff score and the author's objectives. Eight of the 9 studies recommended specific cutoff scores.


Discussion and Conclusion: The BBS alone is not useful for predicting falls in the older adults with and without pathological conditions. Given the varied recommended cutoff scores and psychometric values, clinicians should use the BBS in conjunction with other tests/measures considering unique patient factors to quantify the chances of falls in the older adults. This study recommends research to formulate a scoring algorithm that can further enhance the clinician's ability to predict falls in the older adults.