Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


  1. Hadaway, Lynn MEd, RN, BC, CRNI(R)


Percutaneous exposure (PCE) and mucocutaneous exposure (MCE) to blood and blood-containing body fluids pose risks to health care workers worldwide. Although PCEs have been greatly reduced in the United States, they have not been eliminated and continue to be a significant problem worldwide. MCE seems to be a much smaller problem than PCE; however, the data are limited and confusing. Venipuncture procedures can easily be associated with PCE, but there are no published reports of MCE occurring during insertion, use, and removal of peripheral catheters. This integrative, systematic literature review identifies the risks associated with venipuncture and the insertion of short peripheral catheters.