cancer, hope, Jordan, religious beliefs, social support



  1. Khater, Wejdan A. RN, PhD
  2. Alkwiese, Mohannad J. RN, MSN


Hope may help individuals cope with cancer during their suffering and uncertainty; moreover, hope may supply adaptive power to assist them to get through the difficult situations and achieve their desired goals. However, little is known with regard to variables that influence hope among Jordanians with cancer. The objective of this study was to identify predictors (perceived helpfulness of religious beliefs, presence of social support, and demographic characteristics) that correspond to fostering hope among Jordanian patients with cancer. Participants included 170 patients with cancer who completed the Herth Hope Index and the Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2. Most participants (98%) were Muslims. Data were subjected to t test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. Jordanian patients with cancer are moderately hopeful to mostly hopeful. Regression analysis indicated that a significant portion of the variance in the level of hope among Jordanians with cancer was attributed to social support and perceived helpfulness of religious beliefs. The 2 variables accounted for 22% of the variance in fostering hope. Presence of social support was the best predictor of a high level of hope. Furthermore, perceived helpfulness of religious beliefs was associated with a high level of hope and was an important aspect in the lives of patients with cancer. Findings support the need for nurses and other health care providers to recognize the importance of hope, social support, and perceived helpfulness of religious beliefs for patients with cancer.