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  1. Greany, John F. PhD, PT


Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify the cardiorespiratory response and energy expenditure of women pushing a stroller (single and double) outdoor.


Study Design: Observational.


Background: There are limited and conflicting reports on the guidelines for improving fitness while pushing a stroller.


Methods and Measures: Two cohorts of women participated; 11 women (25.5 +/- 5.2 years) for a single stroller and 17 women (22.9 +/- 0.9 years) for a double stroller. All subjects completed a treadmill maximal exercise capacity test and exercise trials pushing a weighted stroller outdoor at 3.0 and 4.0 mph. Oxygen consumption (



O2), caloric expenditure (kcal), and heart rate (HR) were measured.


Results: The absolute mean intensity for single/double stroller was 4.8/5.3 metabolic equivalents (METs) at 3.0 mph and 7.0/7.0 METs at 4.0 mph. The mean relative intensity (percent HR reserve) for single/double stroller was 55.1%/63.9% at 3 mph and 67.9%/73.9% at 4 mph. Percent maximal oxygen uptake reserve (%



O2R) for single/double stroller was 37.2%/43.7% at 3 mph and 53.9%/57.6% at 4 mph. Energy expenditure was 5.3/5.2 kcal/min at 3 mph and 7.7/6.9 kcal/min at 4 mph.


Conclusions: Pushing a weighted single or double stroller at least 3.0 mph meets the absolute intensity guidelines for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and can yield health and fitness benefits.