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Despite guidelines, codeine is still prescribed for children with upper respiratory infection. Even though the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Chest Physicians discourage codeine use in children younger than 12 years, and despite a reiteration in 2006 of recommendations against its use in children, codeine is often prescribed for coughs, upper respiratory tract infections, and pain. Codeine use is discouraged because of its ineffectiveness in a third of children who poorly metabolize it and the risk of fatal toxicity in children who are ultrarapid metabolizers of it. Researchers analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey on visits to EDs by children three to 17 years old. According to the analysis, published in the May Pediatrics, between 2001 and 2010, codeine prescriptions written for children during ED visits did fall overall, from 3.7% to 2.9% of visits, but prescriptions related to injury and upper respiratory infection, the two most common reasons for pediatric ED visits, did not. Ibuprofen and hydrocodone are safer for childhood pain, say the authors, and dark honey suppresses cough.