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cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, lesbian women, Pap smear



  1. Waterman, Lindsay MN, ARNP
  2. Voss, Joachim PhD, RN, ACRN, FAAN


Abstract: The purpose of this article is to identify Pap testing rates among lesbians and identify reasons for lack of recognition of cervical cancer risks in lesbians. Articles that reported cervical cancer screening rates among lesbians were searched. Between 48% and 81% of lesbians reported recent Pap smears. The lesbian community requires better education, and healthcare providers should promote regular Pap smears for all women.