bruising, cold application, heparin, injection duration, pain, subcutaneous injections



  1. Sendir, Merdiye PhD, BSN
  2. Buyukyilmaz, Funda PhD, RN
  3. Celik, Zuhal RN
  4. Taskopru, Ilknur MSc, RN


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the injection duration (30 seconds) and local dry cold application (5 minutes before and after injection) on pain intensity and bruising at the injection site in subcutaneous heparin injections.


Design: This was a randomized controlled, prospective, experimental study.


Setting: This study was performed between February 2011 and February 2012 in the orthopedic wards of 1 university hospital.


Sample: The sample consisted of 60 patients receiving subcutaneous injections of heparin once a day and hospitalized in the orthopedic and trauma wards.


Methods: A computerized randomization program was used to allocate the patients to 3 experimental groups: group A (30-second injection duration), group B (30-second injection duration and 5-minute dry cold application applied locally), and group C (injection administered for 10 seconds and no dry cold application applied locally).


Results: This study observed statistically significant differences in pain intensity and bruising occurrence and formation measured over time among groups A and B (30-second injection duration or 30-second injection duration and 5-minute local dry cold application) and group C (10-second injection duration).


Conclusion: It was determined that a subcutaneous injection duration of 30 seconds and 5-minute local dry cold application (before and after injection) can be effective in decreasing the intensity of pain and in reducing the occurrence of bruising.