dietary intervention, heart failure, self-care, sodium



  1. Heo, Seongkum PhD, RN
  2. Moser, Debra K. DNSc, RN, FAAN
  3. Lennie, Terry A. PhD, RN
  4. Payne-Emerson, Heather PhD, RD, LD
  5. Welch, Janet L. PhD, RN, FAAN
  6. Weaver, Michael PhD, RN


Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe how to develop a theory-based tailored dietary intervention (TADI) and test its feasibility and acceptability in patients with heart failure (HF).


Methods: The development team consisted of experts in HF, nutrition, and clinical trials. Four patients with HF and 3 additional experts reviewed intervention materials and provided feedback. The 5-session TADI was developed from this feedback and tested in 5 patients with HF (60% women; mean age, 55 years). Participation and intervention completion rates were collected for feasibility test. In addition, data on dietary adherence and the factors affecting dietary adherence were collected at baseline and after the intervention for feasibility test. Data on patient acceptability were collected at the end of sessions.


Results: Sixty percent of patients we approached expressed interest in this study. Five patients completed all of the sessions and follow-up data collection. Mean dietary sodium consumption decreased from 2.38 to 1.30 g/d. Among the factors affecting dietary adherence, skills showed the greatest increase. Patient acceptability scores for sessions 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 98%, 97%, 100%, and 100% of 100%, respectively.


Conclusion: The TADI is ready for testing in larger sample studies to manage sodium intake.