1. Laufer, Rachel PT, DPT
  2. Kim, Sean PT, DPT
  3. Grimes, Jason PT, MPT, OCS, ATC
  4. Vaughan, Victor PT, DPT, MS, OCS
  5. Yen, Sheng-Che PT, PhD
  6. Chui, Kevin K. PT, DPT, PhD, GCS, OCS, FAAOMPT


The purpose of this article is to provide a literature review of publications from 2004 to 2014 that examined the effect of foot and ankle manual therapy techniques for various pathologies and conditions for aging and older adults. The main topics addressed are ankle sprains, balance deficits, and heel pain. Also included are a randomized controlled trial for hallux abducto valgus, a case series for triceps surae dysfunction, and a case study for cuboid syndrome. Other pathologies were considered, but no research has been performed to substantiate the use of manual therapy for this patient population.