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  1. Tsao, Ying PhD, RN
  2. Creedy, Debra K. PhD, RN
  3. Gamble, Jenny PhD, RN


To assess parenting stress and major difficulties experienced in early motherhood among immigrant and Taiwanese women in Pingtung, southern Taiwan. A comparative, descriptive, cohort study of parenting stress and maternal psychological health, using the Child Care Stress Checklist and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. A purposive sample of 26 foreign-born Vietnamese and 162 Taiwanese mothers were surveyed at 6 weeks' postpartum. Both groups of mothers experienced similar parenting difficulties including the establishment of a regular sleeping schedule for the infant, consoling a crying infant, awareness of infant's needs, conflict with family members, and difficulties managing household chores. Curtailment of social activities was reported more often by Taiwanese mothers, whereas inaccessibility to other experienced mothers and poor maternal-infant bonding were experienced more by immigrant mothers. There were significant differences between groups, with high levels of child care stress and postpartum depression symptoms reported more often by immigrant mothers. Nurses-midwives and community child health nurses need to be sensitive to the particular difficulties and stresses of parenting in mothers from different backgrounds and provide effective interventions and support activities.