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acute kidney injury, AKI staging, cardiovascular surgery, risk reduction



  1. Smith, Melanie E. DNP, RN, ACNP-BC


Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication experienced by many patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative deterioration in renal function is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality and affects long-term survival. Developing strategies to identify and treat AKI is important to reduce incidence and optimize outcomes.