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  1. Tahan, Hussein M. PhD, RN


Purpose/Objectives: This article describes the meaning and underpinnings of advocacy in the field of case management and shares essential principles and concepts for effective client advocacy.


Primary Practice Setting(s): All practice settings across the continuum of health and human services and case managers of diverse professional backgrounds.


Findings and Conclusion: Advocacy is vital to case management practice and a primary role of the professional case manager. It is rooted in ethical theory and principles. Successful case managers apply advocacy at every step of the case management process and in every action they take. Part I of this 2-part article explores the ethical theories and principles of advocacy, the perception of case management-related professional organizations of advocacy, and types of advocacy. Part II then presents a client advocacy model for case managers to apply in their practice, describes the role of advocacy in client engagement, and identifies important strategies and a set of essential competencies for effective case management advocacy.


Implications for Case Management: Acquiring foundational knowledge, skills, and competencies in what advocacy is equips case managers with the ability and confidence to enact advocacy-related behaviors in the provision of care to achieve desired outcomes for both the clients and health care agencies/providers alike. Case management leaders may use the knowledge shared in this article to develop advocacy training and competency programs for their case managers.