1. Goh, Hui-Ting PT, PhD
  2. Ramachandram, Kavithah BEd
  3. Ahmad-Fauzi, Aishah MRehabMed, MBBS
  4. Subamanian, Pathmawati DHSc


Background and Purpose: Social participation restriction is a common barrier encountered by older adults and individuals with physical disabilities. To best direct the limited resource to support social services for individuals with disability, there is a need to objectively measure social participation restriction. A number of tools to measure levels of social participation are available, but none of them has been translated into the Malay language. This cross-sectional study examined the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Life Habits Assessment (LIFE-H 3.1) that had been translated and culturally adapted to the Malay language.


Methods: Seventy-five individuals with physical disabilities (age, mean [standard deviation] = 58 [10] years; 49 males) participated in this study. Participants were interviewed twice with the Malay version LIFE-H 3.1, approximately 1 week apart. The Barthel Index (BI) and the World Health Organization Assessment of Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQoL-BREF) were administered in the first interview as well. Intraclass correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman Bias D were used to examine test-retest reliability. The Spearman correlation coefficients were computed to quantify the correlation between the Malay version LIFE-H 3.1 and the BI and the WHOQoL-BREF, respectively, to examine the concurrent validity of the Malay version LIFE-H 3.1. Furthermore, standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were calculated.


Results: The Malay version LIFE-H 3.1 had excellent test-retest reliability as evidenced by good to excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (0.71-0.95) and minimal Bland-Altman biases (0.01-0.12). The correlations between the Malay version LIFE-H 3.1 and the BI were fair to good (r = 0.28-0.69). The correlations between the Malay version LIFE-H 3.1 and the WHOQoL-BREF were weak to fair, ranging from 0.02 to 0.57.


Conclusions: The Malay version LIFE-H 3.1 demonstrates excellent test-retest reliability and satisfactory validity. This questionnaire is an appropriate tool to assess social participation in rehabilitation for native Malay language speakers.