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alcohol use, child health, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, fetal alcohol syndrome, infant health, pregnancy, prenatal alcohol exposure, substance use, women's health



  1. Walker, Deborah S. PhD, CNM, FACNM, FAAN
  2. Edwards, Wanda E.R. DNP, PMHCNS-BC, NP
  3. Herrington, Carolyn PhD, NNP-BC, CLC


Abstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) remain a common cause of intellectual disability in infants and children, with an estimated incidence of 9.1 out of every 1,000 U.S. live births. This article discusses methods for identifying and assisting women who consume alcohol prenatally and referring infants and children with FASD for intervention.