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Keywords

 

Authors

  1. Hughes, Suzanne RN, BSN

Abstract

In addition to the well-established cardiovascular risk factors of elevated total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and cigarette smoking, multiple additional factors are suspected culprits in both the development and progression of atherothrombosis. It is key for the clinician to critically review research findings utilizing an organized framework in order to credibly advise the patient with cardiovascular disease or at risk for its development. The current evidence and recommendations regarding the following "novel" or "emerging" risk factors will be reviewed: lipoprotein(a), hyperhomocysteinemia, C-reactive protein, infectious processes, fibrinogen, and microalbuminuria.