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  1. Naddour, Mouhib MD
  2. Kalani, Mehboob MD
  3. Hattab, Yousef MD
  4. Gandhi, Viral MD
  5. Singh, Anil C. MD, MPH, FCCP
  6. Bajwa, Omer MD


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can present in a variety of different clinical settings and in a diverse, comorbid patient population, both of which will guide the clinician toward the appropriate therapeutic response. Patients who present with pulmonary embolism are at risk for hemodynamic instability, recurrence of VTE, cardiac comorbidities, and increased risk of overall mortality. Prognostication models have been clinically validated for risk stratification and prediction of mortality. Similar to pulmonary embolism, patients with deep vein thrombosis carry a higher risk of VTE recurrence and cardiac comorbidities. Consequently, VTE can be treated by a variety of methods such as anticoagulants or inferior vena cava filters, which bear their own risks and benefits. It is imperative that clinicians monitor patients for complications from VTE and the chosen therapy.