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Keywords

balance, falls, stroke, Berg Balance Scale, diagnostic tests, test and measures

 

Authors

  1. Alzayer, Lamia PT, MS
  2. Beninato, Marianne PT, DPT, PhD
  3. Portney, Leslie G. PT, DPT, PhD, FAPTA

Abstract

Background and Purpose: To determine whether individual Berg Balance Scale (BBS) items or a group of items would have greater accuracy than the total BBS in classifying community-dwelling people with stroke with a history of multiple falls.

 

Methods: The subjects were 44 community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke; 34 had one or no falls in the past six months, and 10 had multiple falls. Each BBS item was dichotomized at three points along the scoring scale of 0-4: between scores of 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 4. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), and positive (+LR) and negative (-LR) likelihood ratios were calculated for all items for each scoring dichotomy based on their accuracy in classifying subjects with a history of multiple falls. These findings were compared with the total BBS score where the cutoff score was derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

 

Results: Dichotomized point 3-4 for items B11 (turning 360 degrees), B12 (alternate foot on stool), B13 (tandem stance), and B14 (standing on one leg) all revealed Sn greater than 60%. B14 had the best Sn and Sp (0.90 and 0.50). Combining B11, B12, or B13 with B14 did not improve Sn. Total BBS receiver operating characteristic curve revealed a cutoff score of 52 (Sn = 90% and Sp = 41%).

 

Conclusion: Using selected items from the BBS may be more time efficient and accurate than the total BBS score for classifying people with chronic stroke living in the community with a history of multiple falls. Prospective study is needed to validate these findings relative to fall prediction.