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Keywords

awareness, men's health, nursing theory, testicular disease

 

Authors

  1. Saab, Mohamad M.
  2. Landers, Margaret
  3. Hegarty, Josephine

Abstract

Background: Health outcomes among men are markedly poorer than women. Testicular disorders can be life-threatening if left untreated. Few studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders have been underpinned by theory. Theory-based interventions are more likely to achieve positive health outcomes than interventions that lack a theoretical foundation.

 

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to present a theory-focused analysis of the preconscious awareness to action framework (PAAF), developed to enhance testicular awareness and help-seeking intentions and behaviors among men.

 

Methods: The following approach was used to develop the PAAF: The empirical literature on men's awareness of testicular disorders was reviewed. A qualitative study was conducted to explore men's awareness of testicular disorders, help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms, and preferred learning strategies in relation to testicular disorders and symptoms. An iterative narrative review process of the theoretical literature on health promotion and symptom appraisal was undertaken.

 

Results: The PAAF comprises seven steps: preconscious awareness, unconscious awareness, conscious awareness, unconscious appraisal, conscious appraisal, intention, and behavior. The concept of testicular awareness was developed to familiarize men with their own testes and promote timely help-seeking.

 

Discussion: Researchers are encouraged to use the PAAF to design health-promoting interventions aimed at enhancing testicular awareness, symptom appraisal, and help-seeking.