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  1. Weaver, Sallie J. PhD, MHS
  2. Mossburg, Sarah E. MS, BSN, RN
  3. Pillari, MarieSarah BSN, RN
  4. Kent, Paula S. MSN, MBA, RN
  5. Daugherty Biddison, Elizabeth Lee MD, MPH


This study explored similarities and differences in the views on team membership and leadership held by nurses in formal unit leadership positions and direct care nurses. We used a mixed-methods approach and a maximum variance sampling strategy, sampling from units with both high and low safety behaviors and safety culture scores. We identified several key differences in mental models of care team membership and leadership between formal leaders and direct care nurses that warrant further exploration.