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Difficult-to-Treat Psoriasis, Facial Psoriasis, Inverse Psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis, Palmoplantar Psoriasis, Scalp Psoriasis



  1. Aldredge, Lakshi M.
  2. Higham, Robert C.


ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated skin disorder that can manifest as multiple clinical phenotypes. Although psoriasis affecting the scalp, face, nails, palms, soles, and intertriginous regions has not been studied as extensively as chronic plaque psoriasis in other body areas, these phenotypes can be associated with significant physical, psychosocial, and functional impairments, which impact quality of life. In addition, recent evidence has shown that psoriasis affecting these areas is more prevalent than traditionally thought. In this article, we discuss the clinical characteristics of these hard-to-treat areas and review newer treatment options, which have shown significant efficacy for psoriasis affecting these body regions. To provide optimal care to patients with difficult-to-treat psoriasis, nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should evaluate patients for scalp, facial, nail, palmoplantar, and inverse psoriasis to provide more effective therapeutic options.