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  1. Kogler, Katherine PT, DPT, NCS
  2. Howard, Natalie PT, DPT, GCS
  3. Schumacher, Margaret PT, DPT, GCS
  4. Knight, Heather PT, DPT, NCS, CBIS


Context: Variable surface balance training is frequently used as a rehabilitative intervention.


Objective: To determine the effects of variable surface training on fall risk in the older adult and begin to explore evidence-based exercise parameters to drive clinical practice.


Study Selection: A search on PubMed and CINAHL in March 2016 resulted in 8 randomized control trials to include in this literature review.


Results: All studies reported statistically significant improvements on at least one outcome measure following variable surface training.


Conclusion: All health care professionals can refer older adults at risk for falls to physical therapy to help prevent falls before they occur.