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General anesthesia does not affect development of young children. Young children who receive anesthesia before routine surgery do not have more neurodevelopmental problems than their siblings who did not have surgery, reports a study published online in the November 5, 2018, JAMA Pediatrics. The study involved 21,794 children, 3,080 of whom received anesthesia. No differences were detected in the Early Development Instrument used to measure primary-school readiness. Most surgical procedures were for ear and mastoid, oral cavity and pharynx, male genital organs, and musculoskeletal problems. The authors conclude: "Surgery in early childhood should not be delayed for consideration of neurologic injury due to anesthetic drugs."