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  1. Harrison, James D. PhD, MPH
  2. Anderson, Wendy G. MD, MPH
  3. Fagan, Maureen DNP, WHNP-BC, FNP-BC
  4. Robinson, Edmondo MD, MBA, FACP
  5. Schnipper, Jeffrey MD, MPH
  6. Symczak, Gina
  7. Carnie, Martha B.
  8. Hanson, Catherine
  9. Banta, Jim
  10. Chen, Sherry MPA
  11. Duong, Jonathan MD
  12. Wong, Celene MHA
  13. Auerbach, Andrew D. MD, MPH


OBJECTIVE: To describe strategies to recruit and support members from hard-to-reach groups on research-focused Patient and Family Advisory Councils (PFACs).


BACKGROUND: Ensuring diverse representation of members of research PFACs is challenging, and few studies have given attention to addressing this problem.


METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using 8 focus groups and 19 interviews with 80 PFAC members and leaders, hospital leaders, and researchers.


RESULTS: Recruitment recommendations were: 1) utilizing existing networks; 2) going out to the community; 3) accessing outpatient clinics; and 4) using social media. Strategies to support inclusion were: 1) culturally appropriate communication methods; 2) building a sense of community between PFAC members; 3) equalizing roles between community members/leaders; 4) having a diverse PFAC leadership team; and 5) setting transparent expectations for PFAC membership.


CONCLUSION: Increasing the diversity of research PFACs is a priority, and it is important to determine how best to engage groups that have been traditionally underrepresented.