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heart failure, heart transplantation, left ventricular assist devices, outcomes, quality of life



  1. Deaton, Christi PhD, RN, FAHA
  2. Grady, Kathleen L. PhD, RN, FAAN, FAHA


The incidence of heart failure is increasing because of the progressive aging of the population and improved survival from cardiovascular disease. This article synthesizes the state of the science of nurse sensitive outcomes in heart failure treated medically or surgically and provides recommendations for building the science. Outcomes studied include mortality, morbidity, resource use, quality of life, symptoms, physical function, return to work, and self-care and compliance behavior. Gaps in the literature are identified and recommendations for future research are provided.